Cases and Notes

CGPM has produced 99 local cases and notes that are taught in the executive trainings. These can be ordered at the LUMS' Case Research Centre.

See below for a complete list of cases and notes and their abstracts.



Punjab Forest Department

Abstract: The case describes the problem of wood theft in a provincial forest department in the country. The interesting fact shared in the case is that the department is suffering from fraud and corruption committed not just by its own employees but also by actors outside the organisation, e.g. police, politicians and common people living around forests. This fact helps illustrate the pervasiveness of fraud within organisations and society. The accompanying technical note, Frauds and their Prevention in Organisations (LUMS No: 24-001-2014-2) gives a certain theoretical slant to the issue of organisational fraud, which many instructors may not approve of. However, the case can be accompanied by alternative theoretical frameworks linking it with issues of employees’ fraud, internal controls and their limitations.
LUMS No.: 01-511-2015-1


Waseela Foundation: Accounting for Zakat

Abstract: The case focuses on the issues faced by Waseela Foundation in its accounting system, specifically in recording the receipt of zakat donations and utilisation thereof. The existing accounting system is simple and puts all types of donations into one pool. Expenses are paid out of that pool indiscriminately. This is not acceptable to some zakat donors who have different interpretations regarding the use of zakat funds. Mr. Mustafa was given the task of redesigning the accounting system which would assure the donors that their zakat was being managed and disposed of as per their instructions. Accounting for donations in non-profits requires an elaborate system of recording and reporting that can distinguish between different sources of donations and their utilisation. This is important because some donations have to be spent on specific purposes. Hence, unlike for profit organisations, non-profits have to keep sources of funds separate for recording and reporting purposes. Zakat poses special accounting challenges because there are variations in interpretations of different schools of thought with regard to avenues of spending that Zakat. The case thus provides students with an excellent opportunity to understand the intricacies of Zakat fund accounting for non-profits.
LUMS No.: 01-510-2015-1


Measurement of tangible long-term assets under international accounting standard 16 in the airlines industry

Abstract: This note concentrates on operating assets expected to yield their economic benefits (or service potential) over a period longer than one year. Such assets are called long-lived assets. Long-lived assets represent a significant percentage of total assets in industries like oil exploration, automobile manufacturing and airlines. Under IFRS, firms have latitude in how to record long-lived assets on their balance sheets and how much detail they provide about separate long-lived asset components. Companies can choose to provide footnote breakdown of the total assets by class so that the statement readers can see the breakdown of gross and net property as well as plants and equipment across classes or segments. This note provides an overview of the basic accounting standards for Property Plant and Equipment (PP&E) under International Accounting Standard 16 (IAS 16). The note focuses on long-lived assets used in the operation of the airlines industry. These assets are a major investment for all airlines. They make up a large part of assets on most balance sheets, and they yield depreciation, often one of the largest expenses on income statements. They also affect the statement of cash flows when cash is paid to acquire assets or is received from their sale. The acquisition or building of an asset is often referred to as a capital expenditure. Capital expenditures are important events because they impact both the short and long-term success of an airline. This note explains how to determine long-lived asset’s cost under IFRS, how to allocate these costs to periods benefiting from their use and how to dispose them off. This note focuses on PIA’s long-lived assets as they represent over 80% of the airline’s total assets. Moreover, there is also emphasis on the ways these assets are recorded on PIA’s financial statements. The objective of this note is to highlight the prevailing model used in the airline industry and compare it with the model used by PIA, which causes significant differences in the area of measurement of long-lived assets. The note also discusses the accounting rules and policies under International Accounting Standard (IAS 16) that PIA uses to record PP&E and compares it with accounting policies followed by Malaysia Airlines and Emirates Airline. Depreciation policies at PIA, Malaysia Airlines and Emirates Airline are also compared and contrasted against a summary of operating data from each airline.
LUMS No. 01-001-2014-2


On the [ir]relevance of "private sector accounting" for the public sector

Abstract: Accounting reforms lie at the centre of recent public sector financial management reforms in both developed and developing countries. In these reforms, private sector accounting has been considered an ideal towards which public sector accounting should also gradually move. Development of public sector international accounting standards on the lines of private sector accounting standards is a move in this direction. This note is an attempt to critically evaluate this trend by analyzing the historical origins and functions of private sector accounting. The note then assesses the relevance of private sector accounting as an accountability mechanism for the State (and its functionaries).
LUMS No.: 01-003-2014-2


Accounting for state revenues

Abstract: This case is an evaluation case in which students are expected to evaluate a situation and to identify the conditions that lead to that situation. The case describes a scenario where a researcher is analysing the volume and composition of taxation revenues of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the World Bank proposals for its reforms. The protagonist, in this case the researcher has to analyse all the data available to assess the inherent problems of this taxation system. This can only be done with reference to the objectives of a taxation system in a developing country. These objectives are also given in the case. Based on this analysis, the protagonist has to evaluate the extent to which the suggestions by the World Bank report will help in overcoming the problems of the taxation system in the country.
LUMS No.: 01-509-2013-1




Understanding the pre-conditions of municipal bonds and learning from the Indian Experience

Abstract: This note documents the pre-conditions, extracted from the experiences of developing countries, which generally exist a priori when a local government plans to access the capital market. It discusses the case of the municipal bond market in India and aims to provide readers an opportunity to relate the experience of India with the development of the municipal bond market in Pakistan.
LUMS No.: 02-608-2015-2


Municipal Bonds - A source of capital for the government

Abstract: This note on municipal bonds is the first in the series of notes that will assess the viability of municipal bonds in Pakistan. The objective of this note is to give readers an introduction to municipal bonds as an alternative source of financing while also emphasising their growing importance in financing mega cities projects. The major teaching objectives of this note are: - Introducing executives to municipal bonds and their various types, which are extensively being used by local government in developed countries to finance mega cities projects. - Helping executives understand the rationale behind exploring municipal bonds as an alternative source of financing while also discussing their advantages when compared to government grants and bank loans. - Giving executives an idea of what are the different concerns for investors’ largely households and the perceived risks attached with municipal bonds that need to be addressed by the local government planning to issue the municipal bonds. This note presents to the executives the framework of issuing municipal bonds to the public and highlights the composition of governmental deal team, their key responsibilities and compares the feasibility of two underwriting methods given different circumstances.
LUMS No.: 02-605-2014-2


Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Center endowment fund

Abstract: The case looks at issues pertaining to the financial management of the endowment fund of Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre (SKMCH&RC. The Chairman of SKMCH&RC, Mr. Imran Khan, is also the head of the political party Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaaf (PTI), which is the key contender in the general elections of May 2013. One of the central figures of the rival political party PML-N, Mr. Khawaja Asif had accused Imran Khan of “gambling” with donated funds, leading to significant financial losses of money which should have been used for the treatment and care of the poor cancer patients of the hospital. The case is intended to be used for Executive Teaching and should be assigned and read together with the Technical Note 'Understanding Endowment Funds- LUMS No: 02-607-2014-2). The technical note lists the main types of endowment funds and, by considering the endowment funds of Harvard University and Yale University (considered to be two well managed funds), discusses matters relating to their financial management and accounting and reporting requirements. After reading this note, participants will have acquired some technical understanding of how to address the key questions in the case.
LUMS No.: 02-630-2014-1


Socrates on finance, time value of money and public sector

Abstract: The note adopts the Socratic method of questioning to explore the foundations of finance, time value of money and public sector capital budgeting. It consists of three dialogues between Socrates and Fischer Black, where the former questions the latter in order to show that the building blocks of finance are fraught with tacit assumptions which are deeply rooted in economic philosophy.
LUMS No.: 02-606-2014-2


The case of municipal bonds in Pakistan

Abstract: This note is second in the sequence of ‘Municipal Bond Financing’ series, specifically designed and written to give readers a brief idea about municipal bond financing in Pakistan and also its application and performance in comparison to its neighboring countries. This note, at the beginning, discusses the context and circumstantial realities that justify the need of municipal bond financing in Pakistan, given the continuously increasing requirements of urban infrastructure project financing coupled with the significant changes that happened to the overall governance structure, including different tiers of governments, in Pakistan. It also gives the reader a quick view of the bond market in general and discusses its different components including but not limited to municipal bonds. Finally, this note discusses in detail the major frictions creating hurdles for Pakistan in its way to a developed municipal bond market, conjugated with probable solutions and policy recommendations.
LUMS No.: 02-604-2014-2


Understanding endowment funds - Technical note

Abstract: This note attempts to provide initial guidance to non-profit managers in Pakistan with regards to the financial management of endowment funds. In order to provide this guidance, two US based endowment funds have been selected i.e. Harvard and Yale endowment funds. These funds are generally recognised in the international non-profit industry as examples of the most well managed ones (Brazenor 2008). This is due to their broad selection of investment products, exposure to alternative asset classes and consistently achieving higher returns with low risk (ibid). In view of this, it is considered that the financial management practices of these funds provide a good reference point for all non-profits, including those operating in Pakistan. This note may be used as supplementary reading for the case, SHAUKAT KHANUM MEMORIAL CANCER HOSPITAL AND RESEARCH CENTER ENDOWMENT FUND LUMS No: 02-630-2014-1.
LUMS No.: 02-607-2014-2


Pakistan's economic and financial future: Must-know for leaders

Abstract: This note provides a re-articulation of two divergent views on Pakistan by international experts. The first view compiled by Stephen P. Cohen, based on his own and the views of other experts, is influenced by socio-political factors. These may have the potential to shape the future of Pakistan. Whereas the second view, presented by Jim O’Neill along with his colleagues, performs an analysis of Pakistan purely on economic and financial grounds. Stephen Cohen presents a gloomy picture about the future of Pakistan after evaluating it on different dimensions (socioeconomic factors, state coherence and ideology, and external factors); while Jim O’Neill is relatively optimistic about the future of Pakistan based on its potential growth opportunities in the form of a large human capital resource.
LUMS No.: 02-602-2013-2


The PFC awards

Abstract: This background note can be used to explain the Provincial Finance Commission Awards in light of the following perspectives: (a) The Constitutions and Functions of PFCs, (b) The Evolution of PFC Awards (c) Vertical and Horizontal sharing Awards by PFCs (d) Analysis of PFC Awards (e) Impact of PFC Awards on i. Intra-Provincial Disparities ii. Delivery of Services (f) Implementation of the 7th NFC Award and the 18th Amendment (g) The New Local Government Legislation, Future Constitutions and the Role of PFCs This background note was prepared for training on fiscal decentralisation, and for students comprising government officials of 18th or 19th grade. It can be used to teach non degree participants in courses, workshops and seminars on fiscal decentralisation in Pakistan.
LUMS No.: 02-603-2013-2


Pakistan International Airlines

Abstract: Pakistan International Airlines (PIA), the national flag carrier airline of Pakistan, registered record revenues of Rs 107 billion in its financial year ending December 2010. Although its operating revenue steadily increased from 2000 to 2010, figures for its operating profits and net income (before tax) have deteriorated. This case study exercise aims to explore the problems behind the worsening financial situation of PIA through an analysis of cost structure and operational performance.
LUMS No.: 02-627-2012-1




Earned value management and analysis

Abstract: Shalimar Interchange was the first three-tier road infrastructure project in Punjab. The project was contracted to Frontier Works Organisation (FWO) with Lahore Development Authority (LDA) as the client. The project was given a very challenging timeline from the start. In April 2009, the Project Director Sibte Hassan made a presentation regarding its progress to the Chief Minister of Punjab, and was later tasked by his boss Shahid Niaz to complete the project at the earliest. The major decisions facing Hassan were planning the material procurement strategy, deciding where to cast the girders and expediting the work on the project.
LUMS No.: 03-854-2015-1


Establishing specifications for mineral water procurement

Abstract: When carrying out procurement, it is essential that the specification requirement is stated clearly and accurately to avoid misunderstanding by the suppliers. The final outcome will be largely determined by the effort undertaken to define the set of requirements that need to be satisfied. The purpose of this caselet is to engage participants in discussing a potential emergency situation, where water needs to be distributed to the affected victims. The participants are required to write specifications for procuring 100,000 litres of water as inventory. They need to focus on mineral content and packaging when setting their specifications.
LUMS No.: 03-853-2014-1


Provincial food department (A): Silo decision

Abstract: The Provincial Food Department (PFD) case series (A-H) was written for use in the ASP-LUMS Procurement Management workshops. The workshops are run for different tiers of professionals working within the government sector. The cases revolve around a food department’s need for food silos to address the growing food insecurity problem in the state. The cases are designed to take the participants through the various stages of the procurement process in the public sector.
LUMS No.: 03-852-2014-1


Public sector procurement Stage 5: Evaluating offers

Abstract: This reference note is sixth in a sequence of eight technical notes written to introduce basic elements of the public sector procurement process as envisaged by the Public Procurement Regulatory Authority Pakistan. Generally, all the eight notes elaborate the steps that need to be followed to ensure that the procurement process is in compliance with Public Procurement Rules 2004, and that the objectives of procurement principles are achieved. After going through these readings, the reader will have a comprehensive understanding of the complete lifecycle of the public sector procurement process along with the key principles of public sector procurement. Specifically, Stage 5 of the procurement process explains the standard procedures to follow when evaluating bid offers. It distinguishes between standard procedures for evaluating bids for goods, works and routine services, and evaluating bids for consultancy services. The evaluation of the submitted bids is crucial in determining the bid which provides the Procuring Agency (PA) with the best value for money, depending on the objectives or aims of the PA, i.e. whether it is looking for best quality or lowest price or a combination of both.
LUMS No.: 03-837-2014-2


Public sector procurement Stage 6: Awarding contracts

Abstract: This technical note is seventh in a series of eight technical notes written to introduce basic elements of public sector procurement process as envisaged by the Public Procurement Regulatory Authority Pakistan. Generally, all the eight notes elaborate the steps that need to be followed to ensure that the procurement process is in compliance with Public Procurement Rules 2004, and that the objectives of procurement principles are achieved. After going through these readings, the reader will have a comprehensive understanding of the complete life cycle of the public sector procurement process along with the key principles of public sector procurement. Specifically, Stage 6 of the procurement process discusses the procedure for issuing notice of acceptance to the successful bidder after the successful bid has been identified. It also provides guidance on the preparation, approval and issuance of contract documents and purchase order to the successful bidder. It sets out the procedure for notifying unsuccessful bidders, announcing the procuring agency’s intention to award contract to the successful bidder, and debriefing unsuccessful bidders where a request is received of the same.
LUMS No.: 03-836-2014-2


Public sector procurement Stage 7: Administering contracts

This reference note is the last one in a sequence of eight technical notes written to introduce basic elements of the public sector procurement process as envisaged by the Public Procurement Regulatory Authority Pakistan. Generally, all the eight notes elaborate the steps that need to be followed to ensure that the procurement process is in compliance with Public Procurement Rules 2004, and that the objectives of procurement principles are achieved. After going through these readings, the reader will have a comprehensive understanding of the complete lifecycle of the public sector procurement process, along with the key principles of public sector procurement. Specifically, Stage 7 of the procurement process provides a general procedure for administering contracts determined by the terms and conditions of each individual contract, following the issuance of a contract document or purchase order.
LUMS No.: 03-839-2014-2


Software Technology Park B: Contract management

Abstract: The Punjab Information Technology Board (PITB) had been given the task of constructing a Software Technology Park (STP) by the Chief Minister Punjab. The STP was a project of national importance with a budgeted cost of Rs 3.42 billion (USD 57 million). It was a 17-storey tower, with an aggressive construction timeline of 18 months, due to the upcoming national elections in November 2007. The Chief Minister wanted to finish a robust infrastructure project and create a success story in the IT sector for the next elections. The upcoming elections created a sense of urgency within the Punjab government to finish the project and show progress to the IT industry as well as the general public. Therefore, the Chairman of PITB had to make two quick decisions, the selection of the contract type and the contractor for the construction of the 17-storey STP.
LUMS No.: 03-848-2012-1


Rehabilitation of Lower Chenab Canal Eastern: Challenges in project performance management

Abstract: Many public sector projects in Pakistan do not meet their deadlines because of weak monitoring and performance management procedures. One of the major weaknesses of the existing project performance management system is that projects are monitored solely on a financial basis, without taking into account other time and scope issues. This case highlights this weakness using the example of the rehabilitation of Lower Chenab Canal Eastern project, and points out a better system for project performance management. The suggested system is based on ‘Earned Value’ that incorporates both financial and physical progress of the project. This case can be used to introduce the importance and need of the ‘Earned Value’ technique for project performance management. It can also be used in an introductory graduate course on Project Management, a senior level course in Management at the undergraduate level and it can also be used for executive training of public sector employees, engaged in project management activities.
LUMS No.: 03-851-2013-1




National Archive Association

Abstract: The case documents the evolution of a non-profit organisation and its current challenges related to scaling of social impact. NAA (National Archive Association) was a non-profit created to preserve the history of Pakistan through its Archive Collection, Learning Outreach and Across Borders Programs. The key learning objective of the case is to provide content which directs the students to make the key decisions that Esma and her team are facing, i.e. ‘How should NAA scale out?’ and ‘What is the most promising strategy for Scaling Social Impact?’ The case gives students the opportunity to discuss various ‘Strategies for Scaling Social Impact’ to reach to a meaningful analysis. This case is suitable for graduate and executive courses on Non Profit/Social Enterprise Management, and Social Entrepreneurship. The case can also be effectively used for courses in Global Studies as it documents the approach taken by social entrepreneurs working in a developing country to create a sustainable and scalable social enterprise model.
LUMS No.: 05-759-2014-1


Performance management at Akhuwat

Abstract: This case is about Akhuwat, a non-profit microfinance organisation established in 2001. Unlike most microfinance institutions (MFIs) in Pakistan, Akhuwat did not charge interest on its micro credit products. This was possible because the organisation used charitable donations to establish its lending base instead of a bank loan. The operational overheads were also met through charitable donations instead of being charged to the microfinance clients. This enabled Akhuwat to offer loan products without charging interest. Dr. Amjad Saqib, Akhuwat’s founder, considered his organisation to be a better alternative to traditional MFIs, which he considered exploitative due to their high interest rates. He also believed that Akhuwat’s lending practices were in accordance with Islamic principles of mutual support. Akhuwat grew gradually in terms of its loan portfolio and branches from 2001 to 2009. However, in 2010, it experienced massive and rapid expansion after a credit injection from the provincial government. Akhuwat’s active loan portfolio grew by seven times in three years, and its number of branches grew by five times. This transition warranted considerable changes in the performance management systems at Akhuwat, an organisation where most activities and tasks were done informally. This case study shares Dr. Saqib’s reflections about the future of performance management at Akhuwat, as well as his concerns regarding not being able to measure the organisation’s intended impacts.
LUMS No.: 05-762-2014-1


Capacity building through effective training at secretariat training institute (STI)

Abstract: This case explains in detail, the various challenges faced by the management of STI. Being a training institute, the actual purpose of the institution was not being fulfilled. The issues at STI have been divided into three categories for the purpose of analysis i.e. training, cultural and infrastructural issues. Furthermore, the process of change has been looked into detail; resolving these issues, overcoming financial constraints and finally achieving training effectiveness. This case can be used for courses in Human Resource Management (HRM) at both the undergraduate and graduate level. Moreover, it can be used for executive training in HRM, Public HRM and Training and Development.
LUMS No.: 05-747-2012-1


Recruitment and selection at the Education Department, FATA

Abstract: The case describes a challenging situation faced by Mr. Syed Manzar Jan Sajid, Additional Director Establishment & Finance at the Directorate of Education, FATA. He had been given the responsibility to undertake the recruitment of teachers in FATA. It was decided by the Education Department that around 120 teachers needed to be replaced on an immediate basis. The recruitment procedure of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Public Service Commission (KPPSC) took years to reach completion and did not take into account the ground realities. As a result the teachers who were commissioned through it, often asked for No Objection Certificate (NOC) to be positioned out of FATA soon after. So, Mr. Manzar had to come up with a recruitment and selection procedure that was not only efficient, but also provided sustainable solutions to the problems of high employee turnover and employee demotivation found in the disgruntled teachers.
LUMS No.: 05-748-2012-1


Institutional change through transformational leadership at Management and Professional Development Department (MPDD)

Abstract: The case describes the journey of Mrs Rashida Malik, Secretary Management and Professional Development Department (MPDD), in transforming MPDD through her charismatic leadership. Mrs Malik reluctantly took charge of the department due to its image as a sidelined role with lean personnel. Defying all odds, she was able to bring about operational changes and give the institution a facelift which completely transformed the workplace environment. On her appointment she inherited a deceptively ancient building due to poor maintenance, an institution that lacked proper systems and a staff that was demotivated to improve its performance. However, as a result of her leadership and management skills she was able to transform the institution into a state-of-the-art facility. She bred optimism, promoted resilience, and renewed faith and confidence in her work force. All of which contributed to the success of MPDD.
LUMS No.: 05-749-2012-1


PEEF: Punjab Education Endowment Fund

Abstract: The case describes the multitude of challenges faced by a Pakistani public sector company in designing a fair and transparent system for the disbursement of scholarship funds. Firstly, Kamran Shams, CEO of PEEF, had to decide on the process that should be used in identifying needy students without compromising on timeliness and transparency. Instead of the student getting caught up in the entire process, PEEF would facilitate the student by designing a seamless scholarship process. Secondly, Kamran Shams wanted to devise a system which eliminated political interference and pressure because political pressure was bound to creep in whenever the government allocated such scholarship funds. Also, PEEF needed to ensure that more scholarships were given to Low Developed Districts (LDDs) as compared to the Developed Districts (DDs) of Punjab since students of LDDs had less access to scholarship opportunities. Thirdly, Kamran wanted to address the workload problem for the human resource at PEEF. The concern was that the workload was expected to increase around the time of board exams and the amount of data handling required for the disbursement of scholarships would over burden the PEEF staff.
LUMS No.: 05-756-2013-1


Kick-starting indigenous innovation: A case of Akhuwat

Abstract: In 2009, Dr. Amjad Saqib, Executive Director of Akhuwat, was deciding if he should introduce an interest-free financing model that effectively builds on the cultural uniqueness of the local community. This model aims to provide interest-free small loans (qarz e hasna) in the spirit of Islamic brotherhood where most activities are performed by volunteers. All activities revolve around religious institutions like mosques and involve a close interaction with the community. The loan disbursement method provides not only religious sanctity to the whole process but also very low operating costs. Dr. Amjad envisioned a poverty free society built upon the principles of compassion and mutual support, but is the interest-free model the right step in this direction? Moreover, there are questions about the scalability of this model and the composition of donors which need to be resolved before this model can be implemented.
LUMS No.: 05-761-2014-1


Change management in Pakistan's public sector organisations

Abstract: This note provides a comparative analysis of the change management processes undertaken in different public sector organisations of Pakistan. For this purpose, the framework that is used is Kotter’s eight-step change process model. This framework is not only widely used but also provides a systematic analysis for evaluating organisation level change initiatives. Based on secondary data, a comparative analysis of five public sector organisations has been done in which significant change initiatives were launched. The five public sector organisations which were part of our sample were Pakistan State Oil (PSO), State Bank of Pakistan (SBP), Secretariat Training Institute (STI), Management and Professional Development Department (MPDD), and Federal Board of Revenue (FBR). This note compares; the role of leadership, management styles, importance of vision statement, communication of vision, importance of coalition building and buy in of change and planning of short term wins in the context of Pakistan’s public sector organisations' change initiatives. It also explores issues on why institutionalisation of change has become a big challenge for Pakistan’s public sector organisations.
LUMS No.: 05-706-2014-2


Lahore Ring Road Police introduction of variable incentive plan

Abstract: The Lahore Ring Road Authority (LRRA) is a public sector organisation, under the provincial government of the Punjab. It is responsible for the construction, maintenance and operation of the Lahore Ring Road. The chairperson of LRRA, Rashid Mahmood, is a graduate in Public Administration from the US. He has studied the concepts of variable incentive plans based on Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), and is trying to apply these concepts to the Ring Road Police (RRP), in order to create a motivated and committed police force. He has taken the approval of the Chief Minister Punjab to give a special allowance to the wardens of the RRP, however he is thinking of converting this fixed allowance into a performance based incentive. Performance based variable incentive plan is a new concept which has been largely untested in the public sector. Rashid expects that it will generate a lot of criticism and resistance, thus, before announcing the proposed performance based incentive, he arranges a brainstorming session with his close colleagues. He wants to get their views about the proposed plan so that he can move forward towards getting the approval for this system.
LUMS: 05-760-2014-1


Development process at society for empowering human resource (SEHER)

Abstract: This case discusses how Abdul Wadood, CEO SEHER, has undertaken different steps to transform SEHER into an institution. He wants SEHER to have a life beyond its founder. It should not be a personality driven (Abdul Wadood) organisation, it should instead be driven by its systems. Wadood feels that the organisational transformation undertaken by him has created a multitude of problems. These include problems in the appraisal system, accountability issues, employee resistance to change (due to loss of authority), complaints of extra workload and inadequate technology skills due to the adoption of MIS, i.e. Management Information Systems. Succession planning also needs to be addressed Wadood is now thinking about the adequacy of the steps that have been taken to transform SEHER into a sustainable institution. He is also wondering how to create a buy-in within the organisation for all these changes.
LUMS No.: 05-765-2015-1


Performance appraisal challenge at Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority (CAA)

Abstract: The case discusses the multitude of challenges that CAA faces with respect to its performance appraisal system. Sumair Saeed, Chief Human Resource CAA, feels that problems lie in the implementation of the current appraisal system. Firstly, the system of targets and objectives between and the appraiser and appraisee at the start of the year is not being followed. This leads employees to feel unfairly treated because no criteria for performance appraisal for their evaluation has been agreed upon. Secondly, Sumair feels there is no buy-in for the performance appraisal system since supervisors regard appraisal as extra workload and an uneasy time of the year. Supervisors feel it is a confrontational rather than developmental/feedback exercise with the subordinate. Moreover, supervisors lack training in providing feedback on appraisals. It is felt that the culture of the organisation develops hostility and distrust when the appraisals are being conducted. The appraisal system does not differentiate between performers or non-performers, thus decisions on promotions or career progressions could not be based on appraisals. The problem of demotivation among employees is also a result of an ineffective performance appraisal system, as no differentiation exists between star performers and non-performers. Sumair is now contemplating the changes in design or implementation of performance appraisal system which are required to rectify the process of performance appraisal at CAA.
LUMS No.: 05-767-2015-1




An introduction to Pakistan's legal system

Abstract: This note has been developed for the training of parliamentarians under USAID-ASP Programme. It will help them understand the Pakistani legal system. It starts off by giving highlights from the pre-partition period and goes on to explain the current legal system in Pakistan - the superior and the subordinate judiciary. The major teaching objectives are as follows: - To explain the legal system of Pakistan with regard to the judicial hierarchy-explaining the apex court in the beginning and the lower courts later (the concepts of superior and subordinate judiciary). - To guide the parliamentarians through the powers and jurisdictions assigned to the courts by the Constitution of Pakistan. - To highlight and discuss the issues regarding the power of the judiciary to amend the Constitution of Pakistan 1973.
LUMS No.: 10-009-2014-2


The trichotomy of power

Abstract: This note guides the reader through the concept of "separation of powers‟, within the three organs of the state; the executive, legislative and judiciary. Examples of the US, UK and Pakistan are given to help explain this concept. It gives a brief history of the development of the theory, followed by how each country has dealt with different challenges faced in implementing this concept. This note has been written for teaching a module on the trichotomy of power at the executive level. The major teaching objectives are given below: 1. This note helps parliamentarians understand the development of the doctrine through different stages of human history, up until modern times. 2. This note re-introduces the concept of how the executive, legislature and judiciary function and interact with one another. 3. This note introduces parliamentarians to the concepts of, “Basic Structure Doctrine” and “Supremacy of Law”, with examples from the Pakistani constitution and application in case law 4. This note discusses the concept of a “Federation” and how the 18th Amendment has brought about a federal form of government in Pakistan. It also discusses how the levels of parliament and the President act as the “Majlis-e-Shoora”.
LUMS No.: 10-1009-2014-2


Theory of human rights and their protection under the Constitution of Pakistan

Abstract: The key focus of this note is the Chapter on Fundamental Rights enshrined in the Constitution of Pakistan. The note seeks to reiterate the importance of these rights among'st the parliamentarians of Pakistan. In light of the various international human rights treaties ratified by Pakistan, the note attempts to demonstrate the embodiment of international human rights in the fundamental rights guaranteed by the Constitution of Pakistan. Additionally, it also highlights the significance of the Principles of Policy mentioned in the Constitution of Pakistan.
LUMS No.: 10-001-2015-2




Contextualising administrative and fiscal decentralization: The 18th Constitutional Amendment

Abstract: This paper is a detailed examination of the 18th Amendment, particularly of the devolution of powers and functions to the provincial governments. It is divided into six sections. Section 2 provides a brief history of federalism in Pakistan. It discusses key provisions from the 1935 Act, the Constitution of 1956 and the Constitution of 1962, that defined federal-provincial relations in Pakistan. Section 3 provides an overview of the 18th Amendment. It briefly examines the reduction of certain powers of the President, the new process for appointment of judges, provisions regarding political parties, addition to fundamental rights, formation of caretaker governments, etc. The enhanced role of the Council of Common Interests (CCI), abolition of the Concurrent List and changes to the Federal List and provisions regarding the National Finance Commission (NFC) are discussed in detail in Section 4. Section 5 examines the implementation challenge. Three sectors, viz. education, health and agriculture are selected to examine how far the Federal Government has transferred various functions to the Provincial Governments after the abolition of these ministries and in pursuance of the Amendment. Section six concludes the paper.
LUMS No.: 10-007-2013-2


The role of parliamentarians in the policy making process

Abstract: This note guides the reader through different elements and frameworks of the policymaking process, with examples, from Pakistan. It also highlights the importance of stakeholder involvement in public policymaking.
LUMS No.: 10-008-2013-2




The economic foundations of new public management paradigm

Abstract: The word ‘New’ has been a misnomer in economics where modified versions of older ideas are referred to as ‘New’. The ‘Neo-Classical Economics’, ‘New Keynesian Economics’, ‘New Institutional Economics’ and others seem to be only partially revised versions of older doctrines. In a world where extremes have a tendency to fail, averages have become a norm. Many of these economic doctrines seem nothing more than the weighted averages of the alternatives they once rebuked. This note examines the economic foundation of New Public Management to see if there is anything ‘New’ about it or like many of its counterparts, it is imbued in an older doctrine. This note first analyses the history of economic thought to infer the relationship between the older ‘truths’ of economics and the beginning of New Public Management. It starts with examining Adam Smith’s idea of the invisible hand followed by its leftist critique. The Classical response is then analysed along with the leftist rebuttal. The economic challenge of the great depression era is discussed followed by the emergence of Keynesian economics. The increasing economic role of the government and the emergence of the old public management paradigm is sought in Keynesian thought. The neo-classical critique of Keynesian economics is then captured laying the foundation for New Public Management. The note finally suggests that the New Public Management emphasis on privatisation, decentralisation, competition and outcome orientation has its roots in Neo-classical economics.
LUMS No.: 11-124-2013-2


A framework for assessing Pakistan's macroeconomic conditions

Abstract: Presently, managers, whether working in the public sector or in private businesses in Pakistan, require an informed, current and strategic perspective on the economic performance of the country. Understanding the state of the economy is only part of the story while using this information to forecast the future of the economy generally completes the tale. This is a challenging task, especially due to the unavailability of standard approaches and ways of synthesising and extracting insights from macroeconomic indicators. An understanding of macroeconomics is even more important since managers too often rely on ad hoc analyses that either miss or misinterpret vital economic information. Such a situation leads to uninformed and vague analyses that further leads to inconsistent or faulty policies. This note will help the public financial managers to identify, organise, and interpret key economic indicators of Pakistan. Before we discuss these economic indicators it is pertinent to develop a perspective on macroeconomics.
LUMS No.: 11-125-2013-2


Note on fiscal decentralization

Abstract: The concept of Decentralization is broad based and has varying degrees of scope and implementation. A number of sources identify different types of decentralization according to the paradigmatic and empirical approaches of the authors. Broadly speaking, we can distribute these approaches into two categories, i.e. Geographical and Institutional. Institutional decentralization mainly deals with the distribution of public service delivery across public, private and nonprofit organizations. This note focuses on geographical decentralization which occurs when functions of government are devolved to geographical sub-national units (states/provinces, cities/counties, etc.).
LUMS No.: 11-123-2013-2




High value horticultural crops in Pakistan - Mangos, citrus and vegetables

Abstract: Pakistan has an agro-based economy. Agriculture contributes around 21% to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) annually, employs 45% of the total labour force and is the largest source of foreign exchange earnings (Ministry of Finance 2013). It has backward and forward linkages with the manufacturing sector, which thrives on agricultural raw materials and an effective demand for its goods and services. Out of about 5,000 industrial units in Pakistan, about 60% are agro-based (Pakistan Bureau of Statistics 2011). Of the various sub-sectors in agriculture, high value horticulture is emerging as a key future growth area for increasing income per unit of land (Nadeem 2010). This note focuses on mangos, citrus and vegetables, which are emerging as key drivers of growth in the horticulture sector. The first three sections discuss production challenges and market opportunities for mangos, citrus and vegetables, respectively. Up to date, data on production and area of each crop are presented to give an idea of their relative importance. A few reform areas are also identified in each case for the federal and provincial governments to support growth in this sub-sector. The last section concludes the note. This note has been written to be used as background reading to supplement the note 'Increasing Agricultural Productivity in Pakistan: Use of Improved Seeds' LUMS No: 13-102-2014-2. The Teaching Note of 'Increasing Agricultural Productivity' may be used for this note.
LUMS No.: 13-103-2014-2


Increasing agricultural productivity in Pakistan: Use of improved seeds

Abstract: This note will be used as background reading for the class sessions on agricultural development in Pakistan in two different programs. The first is the Level 2 undergraduate course i.e. Contemporary Social Policy Issues in Pakistan. In this course, students are systematically exposed to various social policy issues through (Pakistanspecific) background readings, class presentations and discussions. The second program is the 5-day training workshop that ASP-LUMS is planning to organise for a group of 35-40 newly elected members of the National Assembly of Pakistan. The training intends to give these parliamentarians a high-level view of several important areas, including agriculture in Pakistan. The note intends to do the following: • Provide basic information on agricultural production in Pakistan • Briefly discuss a few policy questions in the following areas: • Agricultural R&D • Intellectual Property Rights • Seed provision system • Extension advice.
LUMS No.: 13-102-2014-2


Seed provision in Pakistan: The political economy of legislative and institutional reform

Abstract: This note will be used as background reading for various ASP courses for senior public sector managers and parliamentarians. The objective is to highlight the importance of legislative reform in the seed sector and to provide sufficient background information on key areas in which reform is warranted. Towards this objective, the note describes the current seed provision system and key features of the existing as well as proposed legislation in particular procedures for variety approval and seed certification.
LUMS No.: 13-101-2014-2




A note on secondary data in Pakistan - Poverty and livelihood indicators

Abstract: This is a multipurpose note. It can be used as a supplementary training material for the Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E) training programs of ASP-LUMS, SEDC and other clients in conjunction with Logical Framework Analysis (LFA)/ Results Based Monitoring (RBM) framework development. The note is motivated by the idea that, data on outcomes and goal indicators in the Results Chain (Figure 1) is readily available from secondary sources. Knowledge about these secondary sources of data can save both the monetary cost of collecting the data that already exists, as well as, time spent in reinventing some of the indicators. This note, in particular, presents detailed information on secondary sources of data on poverty and labour indicators.
LUMS No.: 16-292-2013-2


Primary and secondary education in Pakistan: Key issues and challenges

Abstract: Pakistan faces a formidable challenge in providing quality primary and secondary education to children, especially from less-privileged areas. Approximately, 12.4 million children of ages 5-14 years are estimated to be out of school and the ones that do attend school receive low-quality education with poor learning outcomes. There are significant gender differences in education facilities and enrollment, especially at the primary level. Overall fiscal allocation for school education is around 2.1% of the Gross Domestic Product, which is low by international comparisons. The private sector has emerged as an important provider and around one-third children now go to private schools. Most of these private schools are low-fee schools. Enrollment in elite private schools comprises a small proportion of the total enrollment in the private sector (about 6%). To increase enrollment and the quality of education, the Government can extend and improve its network of existing schools as well as support the creation of extra places in private schools. It will also have to take some fundamental decisions regarding a set of related issues, viz. medium of instruction, curriculum and assessment. These decisions determine whether or not children enroll in a school, how long they continue to study and how good are their learning outcomes.
LUMS No.: 16-293-2013-2


A note on secondary data in Pakistan - Poverty and livelihood indicators

Abstract: This is a multipurpose note. It can be used as a supplementary training material for the Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E) training programs of ASP-LUMS, SEDC and other clients in conjunction with Logical Framework Analysis (LFA)/ Results Based Monitoring (RBM) framework development. The note is motivated by the idea that, data on outcomes and goal indicators in the Results Chain (Figure 1) is readily available from secondary sources. Knowledge about these secondary sources of data can save both the monetary cost of collecting the data that already exists, as well as, time spent in reinventing some of the indicators. This note, in particular, presents detailed information on secondary sources of data on poverty and labour indicators.
LUMS No.: 16-292-2013-2


A note on secondary data in Pakistan: Education indicators

Abstract: The objective of this note is to be used as a supplementary training material for the Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E) training programs of ASP-LUMS, SEDC, and other clients in conjunction with Logical Framework Analysis (LFA)/Results Based Monitoring (RBM) framework development. It can be used in the topics of developing indicators and research methods in the same training programs. It may also be used as a basis of class-room discussion on secondary data sources and their importance. Furthermore this secondary research note would be helpful for project managers, practitioners, and students who are undertaking research projects on education related topics.
LUMS: 16-288-2012-2


The education sector of Pakistan: Creating equal opportunities for all

Abstract: Article 25A of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan clearly states that it is the responsibility of the State to provide free and compulsory, quality education to children between the ages of 5 and 16. One would assert that such a mandate is congruent to the education policy of most progressive nations of the world and also the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, the realities on ground suggest that such an ambition remains unfulfilled. The government has taken various initiatives to increase access to education, in even the most remote areas, by constructing schools and increasing enrollment but still a lot needs to be accomplished before we are able to achieve education for all. The note is written for the public management and public policy course/module at the graduate and executive education levels. The purpose of this sector note is to provide an understanding to the students regarding the state of education and the governance structure of the education sector in Pakistan. Students are expected to answer the questions in the note after critically analysing the information, identifying the challenges and suggesting suitable action steps and recommendations.
LUMS No.: 16-294-2013-2


Note on India and Singapore - Some key elements in governance

Abstract: This technical note aims at facilitating the reader in identifying some critical elements and institutional practices in governance. India and Singapore are the subject of this note, one being a next door example with a common colonial legacy and the other known for its best governing practices, world over. The objectives of this note are: • To familiarise the newly inducted parliamentarians with governmental structures, processes and interventions in some critical fields while placing reliance on the experience of the two mentioned countries. • To encourage participants to form their views about different elements of governance, with a view to assessing their applicability in Pakistan. • To help prepare parliamentarians to introduce innovation while making legislation through an adaptive approach.
LUMS: 16-291-2013-2


The working of the federal government and the decision-making process: Statutory institutions

Abstract: This technical note serves as a guideline for freshly inducted parliamentarians to understand some key elements of the decision-making processes in the Federal Government. These decisions, before fruition, pass through an iterative process which starts with the identification of an issue. It is articulated in such a manner that it draws the attention of many other stakeholders who can contribute towards its resolution. The note underlines the structure through which policy matters are given a final shape and converted into implementable decisions. The framework in this regard is mandated by the rules which draw strength from the provisions of the Constitution. The second part of the note deals with the working of key regulatory institutions like Oil and Gas Regulatory Authority (OGRA), Public Procurement Regulatory Authority (PPRA), National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (NEPRA) and the State Bank of Pakistan.
LUMS: 16-290-2013-2


Decentralised institutions in Pakistan - Evolution and planning

Abstract: The note expands on the evolution of devolved institutions in Pakistan with their origin going back to the early Mughal period. After independence, the process of federalism underscored the importance of devolved government at the local level but its recognizable form could only emerge with the advent of Ayub Khan's military rule. The system since then has passed through a number of critical phases. It has now been recognized as a third distinct tier under the constitution. The rationale of the system is to rally people around this institution for identifying and resolving the problems at the grass root level. The foremost objective of the note is to understand the history and evolution of these institutions with a view of making future projections. Secondly, the note aims to provide a useful forum to mid management officers to share their perspectives on how these institutions can be deployed as effective instruments of governance.
LUMS: 16-297-2014-2


Evolution of civil service in the Subcontinent - Philosophic underpinnings and colonial steelframe

Abstract: As a public sector institution, the civil service has played a defining role in consolidating and advancing the key objectives of the colonial rule in the subcontinent. It has also been the driving force behind administering justice and development. The note looks at the evolutionary process of how the foreign rulers had raised the administrative structures and constituted an imperial service arrayed with vast powers and responsibilities. Appropriate merit based selection and rigorous training were the key hallmarks of the service. The arrangement led to the creation of covenanted service, in which the employer entered into an agreement with the employee. In later years, multiple growing needs led to the establishment of subordinate services which opened doors for the natives. At the beginning of the colonial period, East India Company remained at the helm of affairs for almost a century. This was followed by complete British suzerainty after the 1858 War of Independence. The British were able to control a vast part of the population and area through officers who were the interface between the ruler and the ruled. The system survived the vicissitudes of history and showed a remarkable degree of adaptability in the wake of multiple demands and their fulfilment. The note traverses through the various stages of the civil service. The system was based on the cardinal principle of merit, with deference to the generalist tradition's testing knowledge and scholarship of an individual in the field of humanities, literature and languages. Its philosophical underpinnings were influenced by the teachings of great thinkers, namely Plato and Confucius, which provided the inherent strength to design a strong structure. The predatory instincts of colonial rule were conflated by the high ideals of the enlightened, civilising mission which underlined the need for reforming and educating the native population. Extractive ventures of the British colonial powers were, therefore, laced with the ideals of the civilising mission which aimed at inculcating modernism amongst the natives. In this process, the civil service- a handiwork of the Englishmen- played a crucial role as an arbiter of justice and fair play. It had the requisite wherewithal to tap the local capabilities for social upliftment. A handful of rigorously trained officers selected through a well laid process provided the mainstay to the British Empire. As an institution known as the Indian Civil Service, it continued to retain its essence along with historic centrality as a lever of governance and administration even after independence.
LUMS No.: 16-298-2014-2


The informal economy of Pakistan

Abstract: This note is written in the context of the growing interest in the informal economy of Pakistan in the academic spheres and at the policy level. After an introductory overview of the conceptual framework of the informal economy, this note explores the extent of this economy with specific reference to Pakistan. Furthermore, it will take a comparative approach to the study of determinants of informal economy, highlighting variations in economic, socio-cultural and state regulatory factors which motivate workers to operate in this sector.
LUMS No.: 16-299-2014-2


Pakistan's struggle against corruption

Abstract: This note attempts to explore global corruption trends and its causes. Different countries have different definitions and interpretations of corruption and several organisations have established corruption indices in order to be able to qualitatively assess the presence of corruption. Since Corruption Perception Index by Transparency International is considered the most authentic index, this note uses it to analyse the global corruption trends in the public sector. New Zealand, Finland and Denmark have consistently remained the least corrupt countries while Somalia and Bangladesh have mostly been ranked as the countries with the highest amount of corruption. Regional ratings show that Western Europe has been the least corrupt region while Central Asia has shown the highest level of corruption. These global causes of corruption can be traced to various social and political factors, higher economic rents, higher discretionary powers, lower accountability, dependence on fuel exports, presence of importunate business regulations and the aspect of underground economy. Various efforts have already been initiated globally to control corruption such as the ADB/OECD Anti-Corruption Action Plan, the UN Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) and the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organised Crime. More specifically, this note explores corruption in the context of Pakistan. The lack of transparency and accountability, bureaucratic competition and institutional weakness are the reasons commonly cited for this problem. Measures taken to control this issue are examined, including the formation of FIA and NAB. Both FIA and NAB have shown high success rates in identifying and punishing acts of corruption. However, for corruption to be controlled, it is essential that the trust in the anti-corruption measures is restored and the agencies are protected from political manipulation. In addition, strict measures have to be taken at the grass root level to create a conscientious corruption free society.
LUMS: 16-300-2014-2


Fiscal decentralization - International experiences

Abstract: The note focuses on fiscal decentralisation as a means of furthering devolved governance with the aim of ensuring delivery of public services in an efficient, effective, transparent and equitable manner. The broad framework underpins the need for administrative and financial powers at the sub-national and local levels of public management and their adequate backup. At the same time, the note looks at some international experiences with particular reference to India, China and Brazil. It also elaborates upon some of the challenges of fiscal decentralisation in Pakistan amid growing expenditure responsibilities at the provincial and the local levels.
LUMS No.: 16-301-2014-2


Energy sector of Pakistan (2006-2012): The impact of shortfall and rising costs

Abstract: Energy plays an important role in the socioeconomic development of a country. It is critical to have access to adequate levels of energy supply and infrastructure to meet the desired economic growth standards. There are numerous factors that have led the country into the shackles of this energy crisis. This note discusses the different sources of energy and more specifically, electricity related challenges. It explains the roles of major players in the energy sector, government initiatives in overall strategy building and a set of recommendations to address the nation's energy crisis. This note is useful for Executive and MBA courses in public sector management. The note can be used independently to familiarise students about the energy sector, current crisis, challenges, key players, etc. or it can also be used as a supporting reading for a case on IPPs or the energy sector.
LUMS No.: 16-295-2014-2


The Punjab Health Foundation: Governance structure and program portfolio

Abstract: This case is about the Punjab Health Foundation (PHF), which had not performed well during the last two decades of its existence. Created in 1992 to support and finance the private sector in providing healthcare to the public at large, it had only extended a small amount of loan (Rs. 773 million) to a small number of borrowers (951 health practitioners and 52 NGOs). These small scale operations did not justify the existence of a full-fledged institutional infrastructure. Over the years, realisation grew at higher levels in the Punjab Government that the organisation was contributing little towards the achievement of health policy objectives. Arif Nadeem, Secretary of the Health Department, was perturbed over such poor performance. He could either close down the Foundation or prepare a plan for its revitalisation. Both options were open.
LUMS: 16-172-2014-1


Planning commission of Pakistan's development framework

Abstract: The PCP Development Framework technical note was written to provide an introduction of the public sector development framework to participants from the public sector in the ASP-LUMS Project Management course. It provides a background of the framework, its key processes and an overview of the performances and challenges of large development projects. The key purpose is to show the role of the development system in selecting the right projects (programming) and doing them right (project management). The technical note can be used in the introduction of the development framework as part of the Project Management course in a single 90 minutes session.
LUMS No.: 16-296-2014-2


A note on sources of secondary data in Pakistan: Healthcare indicators

Abstract: Secondary data carries a distinct importance in the research process. It can reduce or even eliminate the need of primary data, which is relatively costly and time consuming to collect and analyse. However, compiling relevant and useful secondary data can be a daunting task. The purpose of this note is to compile a list of key secondary data sources of healthcare indicators in Pakistan.The objective of this note is, to be used as supplementary training material for the Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E) training programs of ASP-LUMS, SEDC, and other clients in conjunction with Logical Framework Analysis (LFA)/Results Based Monitoring (RBM) framework development. It can be used in the topics of developing indicators and research methods in the same training programs. It may also be used as a basis of class-room discussion on secondary data sources and their importance. Furthermore this note would be helpful for project managers, practitioners, and students who are undertaking their research projects on healthcare topics.
LUMS No.: 16-289-2013-2


Civil services and process of reforms in Pakistan

Abstract: The note focuses on the primacy of the civil services as an engine of growth and development in the history of Pakistan. It looks at structures and elements of the administrative apparatus at both the policy making and implementation levels. It further dilates on the process of reforms that the civil services in Pakistan went through. Despite a myriad of reforms, the gap between expectations and performance continues to grow. This brings us to the need for making reforms an inbuilt and on-going process to catch up with the growing demands of efficient service delivery. The foremost objective of the note is to provide undergraduate students with good understanding about the working of a premier institution in the country, which has and continues to play a major and pervasive role in the development process. Another objective is to expose the students to some of the key characteristics of the civil services in Pakistan, making it highly hierarchical in the national life. The note purports to underline the need for on-going reforms to make the processes more accessible and remove structural impediments.
LUMS No.: 16-302-2015-2


Higher education in Pakistan (1947-2013) A perspective on critical issues and the way forward

Abstract: This note presents an overview of the state of higher education in Pakistan from 1947 till 2013. It is an attempt to identify and understand sector related issues and challenges and henceforth, propose a set of recommendations. The first section of the note establishes the significance of higher education as the globally accepted vehicle for national growth and progress. This is followed by a discussion on the existing state of higher education in Pakistan. This is done by reporting statistical data and indicators that illustrate major developments, the role of policy and the contribution of key players including the government as well as public and private institutions. The note concludes with an integrated perspective on the critical issues and suggests ways that could possibly take the sector forward in the years to come. To summarise, this note is an effort to meet its objectives keeping in consideration certain limitations, including the limiting scope of the study and availability of up-to-date data.
LUMS No.: 16-303-2015-2


Perfect strangers: The state and the NGOs in Pakistan

Abstract: This paper provides evidence of the limited and remote interaction between the state and the NGOs for most part of the latter’s life. It is argued that the legal framework is mostly archaic, having been created at a time when the role of the NGOs was limited to small-scale projects in a narrow range of fields. It is also argued that the institutional infrastructure of registration and regulatory authorities in the provincial and district governments is highly inadequate to discharge even the most basic regulatory functions in a meaningful manner. This note can be used as background reading in undergraduate courses related to Public Management such as Contemporary Social Policy Issues in Pakistan, and Non Profit Management.
LUMS No.: 16-305-2015-2


Institutional inadequacies: Data collection on healthcare providers in Punjab

Abstract: This note describes in detail how the Punjab Government and major health sector regulators collect data on the operations of individual and institutional health providers. The Punjab Government has multiple arrangements for collecting data. The largest and the most comprehensive one is the District Health Information System (DHIS), which regularly generates data on 83 clinical and non-clinical indicators about the working of primary and secondary healthcare facilities. However, the Government does not seem to be satisfied with data accuracy and has launched parallel programmes to collect data on a subset of indicators used in DHIS. Another major regulator is the Punjab Healthcare Commission, which collects data on health establishments with an indoor capacity of 50 beds or more. In addition, there are four industry organisations that collect data on practitioners of allopathic medicine and dentists, practitioners of eastern medicine, homeopaths and nurses. The note identifies several gaps in these data collection arrangements.
LUMS: 16-304-2015-2




Inherently equal?

Abstract: The note 'Inherently Equal' outlines the current state of gender-protection laws in Pakistan. It has been written to provide a panoramic view of the laws governing gender inequality. The anticipated audience includes undergraduate and graduate degree students in college, as well as non-degree trainees such as government officials in courses and workshops.
LUMS No.: 17-011-2013-2




Pre-qualification of vendors for large-scale IT system and services

Abstract: This case exercise was written for use in the ASP-LUMS Procurement Management workshops. The workshops are run for different tiers of professionals working within the government and CSO/NGO sectors. The short case exercise revolves around a procurement manager’s task of coming up with pre-qualification criteria to qualify IT vendors for a large IT project for the provincial government. Pre-qualification is an important aspect of procurement in both the public as well as private sectors. The exercise has been designed to help participants understand that basic concept; learn to determine relevant pre-qualification criteria and assign appropriate weights to the criteria for a given project.
LUMS No.: 18-442-2014-1




Frauds and their prevention in organisations

Abstract: Frauds consume precious organisational resources, so their prevention remains a major concern for all organisational stakeholders. This note is an attempt to understand the reasons for organisational fraud, its prevention mechanisms and the causes of those mechanisms' failures. Most of the instructional resources available on this topic are either too technical in nature or are too generic. Technical texts focus on fraud types and the specific tools and techniques that can be used to prevent them. Most of the material written by accountants (for accountants!) falls in this category. In contrast, there are these generic commentaries written by sociologists that address this issue from a sociological standpoint. While very insightful, their utility for executive training is limited. Most executives find these materials too abstract for their liking. The primary motivation for writing this note is to create an instructional resource which falls in between these two extremes. The note covers technical issues, e.g. basic ingredients of internal control systems. At the same time, it links organisational frauds with crisis and contradictions of the capitalist mode of production. The author feels that this middle of the road approach can be of greater instructional value for MBA and executive education.
LUMS No.: 24-001-2014-2




CARE Lahore: Preparing a logframe

Abstract: LUMS MBA students, who are about to conduct a third party evaluation of the CARE Foundation as part of their final MBA project, need to come up with some success criteria and their indicators in order to evaluate CARE's progress and achievement. They have met with some key managers at CARE and have also looked at the organisation's vision and mission statements to get some clarity on CARE's overall goals and objectives. They now need an evaluation tool that can help them streamline all this information and give structure to their evaluation study. Many international donor agencies have been using the Logical Framework or Results Based Management as tools, both to help design and evaluate intervention programs. The student team decided to develop such a framework for CARE as a first step, prior to starting their evaluation project.
LUMS No.: 30-121-2013-1


CARE Lahore: Evaluation and beyond

Abstract: Ms Neelum Mumtaz (Director Academics CARE Foundation) and Area Managers Mr Imran Shaukat and Ms Mahreen Mahmood are in a meeting discussing the first draft of an evaluation report on CARE. The report has been prepared by MBA students at the Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS). The report discusses CARE’s school adoption model and provides information on the model’s effectiveness by comparing/contrasting CARE adopted schools with government run schools. The purpose behind commissioning this report was to document CARE’s performance for potential donors and government education officials. CARE mangers are now deliberating over the results presented in the report. They need to decide if the report presents something worthwhile that can be shared with the government officials at the time of contract renewals of the adopted schools.
LUMS No.: 30-123-2013-1


Monitoring and evaluation frameworks

Abstract: This note proposes the use of a basic five-step process for creating an effective monitoring and evaluation framework. Comprehensive tips and guidelines are provided for each step in order to ensure that the audience is able to make their framework as functional as possible, given the circumstances. Moreover, a single example, based on an actual project conducted in the Indian state of Bihar on Infant Mortality, is used throughout the note in order to clarify the steps and provide a consistent approach to tackling each section effectively. The purpose of this note, therefore, is to identify an M&E framework based on best practices identified by practitioners, donor organisations, and the author’s personal observations. It provides a unique opportunity to effectively create any type of monitoring and evaluation framework because it is generic in nature; a direct contrast to the abundant practitioner manuals available for developing specific M&E frameworks. Therefore, even though the note only examines the Logical Framework Approach (LFA) and Results Framework (RF) in detail, based on DFID and USAID guidelines respectively, it can also be used to discuss a variety of other M&E frameworks, such as Results-Based Management (RBM), Theory of Change (TOC) and Logic Models. Local NGOs can also use it to develop indigenous M&E frameworks.
LUMS No.: 30-001-2014-2


Monitoring and evaluation in the Punjab Health Department

Abstract: This case is about the Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) system in the Punjab Department of Health (DOH). There are two major arrangements for collecting data on the performance of Primary and Secondary Health Care facilities in the province. These are the District Health Information System (DHIS) and field-visit-based data collection by Monitoring and Evaluation Assistants (MEAs). The DHIS is based on regularly maintained registers at health facilities and covers 79 and 83 indicators for Primary Health Care (PHC) and Secondary Health Care (SHC) facilities, respectively. The facility in charge reports in a specific pro forma every month. Data is compiled at the district and the provincial level. The MEAs’ data, on the other hand, is based on field visits. They collect data on 14 indicators which are focused mainly on managerial aspects of the facility. The MEAs’ data is also compiled at the district and provincial levels. MEAs are employed by the Punjab Education Department and monitor health facilities in addition to their routine duties. They have demanded extra resources to cover their time and travel. The DOH does not agree to this demand prompting the MEAs to stop conducting field inspections of the health facilities. Mr Arif Nadeem, the Secretary of the Department, discusses the data collection process and the indicators used by the MEAs with his colleagues. He constitutes a three member Committee to examine in detail the indicators used by the MEAs. These indicators are then compared with the DHIS indictors and the committee is asked to present their recommendations, within the next three days, on whether MEAs’ inspections should be continued or not.
LUMS No.: 30-122-2013-1


Building a dashboard for the Punjab Health Department

Abstract: This case is about monitoring and evaluation (M&E) challenges in the Punjab Department of Health (DOH). Despite his substantial experience of working in senior managerial positions, Arif Nadeem, the Department Secretary, finds himself somewhat lost in the numerous department related reports and data sheets that keep on pouring from various quarters. He feels under-informed and over-informed at the same time. DOH regularly collects data on a range of indicators and there are multiple systems in place to collect the data from various health facilities. The following four systems are important. Firstly, the District Health Information System (DHIS) collects data on around 80 indicators covering treatment and spread of communicable and noncommunicable diseases, human resources, facility utilisation, etc. Secondly, the M&E Assistants (MEAs) inspect primary healthcare facilities and report on 14 indicators covering the number of patients attended, staff presence, medicine availability, public opinion, etc. Thirdly, the DOH field operatives visit health facilities and report on various aspects of functioning in monthly meetings of officials at the district level. Since 2011, they have been using simple smartphone based applications to enter data on site and transmit it to the points of analyses instantaneously. Fourthly, progress on development projects is reported every month on prescribed pro forma covering physical progress as well as amount spent. In addition, tertiary care hospitals report on various aspects of their functioning on need basis and receipt/expense statements are regularly prepared by the Budget and Accounts section in the department. Often there is too much information to absorb. There is no effective system of filtering and processing information according to the needs of various managerial tiers. Arif realises that he needs a dashboard that can provide just enough detail to various users. Arif and his team deliberate on the choice of indicators for the dashboard. There is substantial disagreement on what to include and what to leave. The disagreement partly emanates from a lack of clarity on the mandate of the department and its senior management. Farasat, a key team member, proposes eight key areas for the dashboard. He proposes displaying these eight areas on the main screen and creating links to detailed district, tehsil and facility-wise data on selected indicators.
LUMS No.: 30-001-2015-1